The fertility of a woman is the ability to reproduce offspring (child). It reflects a normal and healthy reproductive system regardless of the diversities in morphology, biochemistry, and physiology present in a human being. Fertilization occurs when an egg and a sperm are both available at the same time, enabling a female to become pregnant.
Hence, the time when the human female is highly fertile comprises seven days of her cycle, i.e. five days just before ovulation, along with a day of ovulation and a day after it. During these seven days, a normal healthy woman shows several signs of high fertility in a woman, some of them are at the physiological level while others are physically evident.
Each month in the female, usually one egg matures and ovulates (releases) from the ovary. It then goes to the fallopian tube, where fertilization takes place. The egg survives up to 24 hours after it is released. However, after intercourse, a sperm, on average, can survive up to five days in the female’s body.
Fertility has been a concern of great value globally regardless of culture, tradition, religion, and era. The more fertile individual is, the more healthy she is considered among people. Signs of High fertility in a woman also increase the chances of a healthy pregnancy.
Signs of Being Fertile
Enlisted below are a few of the many signs of high fertility in a woman.
1. Regular Periods
The regularity of a cycle in a woman depends on its length and duration. A normal regular cycle length ranges from 21-35 days(average 28 days) with menstrual flow lasting for 3-10 days. On average, women menstruate for 5 days.
2. Normal Flow
During the menstruation phase of the menstrual cycle, moderate bleeding with no or few clots is normal. Too less bleeding might be due to underlying conditions such as PCOS or thyroid or adrenal gland disorders. Whereas, too heavy menstrual bleeding ( >80ml ) may be a sign of coagulopathies, fibroids, endometrial polyps, thyroid disease endometriosis, adenomyosis, or a pelvic inflammatory disease(PID). A variation in the flow after age 35 might be due to the perimenopause state.
3. Pain during Menstruation
Normally, periods are associated with mild to moderate lower abdominal pain and discomfort that may radiate to the back or leg, it is a sign of healthy periods and it’s due to prostaglandin released causing clearance of membranes formed during the menstrual cycle as your uterus prepares for any probable pregnancy. Too much pain during menses may be indicative of a fertility issue or a clinical condition affecting fertility, for eg: endometriosis, adenomyosis, or a pelvic inflammatory disease(PID).
4. Changes in Cervical Mucus
Right before ovulation, you might experience a change in consistency, color, pH, and amount of mucus released from the cervix into the vagina. It becomes slippery, making the vagina well lubricated, and pH increases making the secretions alkaline, hence providing the optimum environment for the sperms to swim into the uterine cavity and fertilize the egg so at this time of the menstrual cycle woman can get pregnant easily.
5. No Comorbidity
A healthy body reflects good reproductive health making you more likely to get pregnant. Diseases like thyroid disorders, pituitary, hypothalamic, ovarian, and endometrial disorders can impact fertility or cause infertility. Any anomaly or pathology in the female genital tract makes getting pregnant more difficult. If you are trying to conceive and suffering from any of the mentioned clinical conditions, get yourself treated first. Consult a fertility specialist, and get routine tests done to enhance your fertility.
6. No history of infection
Having a history of Tuberculosis can eventually make you a suspect of pelvic tuberculosis which can obstruct the fallopian tubes by forming adhesions, additionally, history of Pelvic Inflammatory disease or Sexually transmitted Infection can also lead to a decline in fertility, so if you never had any of these then you’re good to go!
7. Body temperature
There are slight variations throughout the menstrual cycle in the body temperature, when the woman is ovulating there’s a surge of progesterone levels in the body that prepares the uterus for pregnancy and rises the temperature up to 0.5ºF/0.3ºC to 1.0°F/0.6ºC above normal that indicate high fertility time, doing intercourse during this time increases the chance of getting pregnant.
Physical Signs Of A Fertile Woman
There are some physical signs of fertility in a woman and commonly noticed ways your body communicates with you to notify that you might be super fertile at that particular time hence, the chances of conception are high. It isn’t necessary for each woman with a healthy reproductive system to have all of these but some can be seen and felt by the woman herself.
- Active ovulation – Ovulation can sometimes be associated with vaginal discharge, bloating, lower abdominal discomfort (cramps), tender breasts, and a slight increase in your basal body temperature.
- Young age – There’s a decline in fertility seen in women over 35 years of age
- Regular menstrual cycle – Regular cycle with a normal flow is one of the important indicators of highly fertile women.
- Beautifully clear skin – Hormonal changes during ovulation bring a glow to your face and it is that time of the month when the woman has the clearest skin.
- Feeling energized – Due to the peak of estrogen levels during ovulation.
- Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) – Several together play a role to release an egg ( i.e. ovulation ), right after ovulation estrogen levels drop while there’s a surge in progesterone levels, this increase in the hormone can cause breast tenderness and sore nipples, edema due to salt and water retention, headache and bloating. These all are indicative of having good hormonal rise at the right, while exaggerated symptoms are indicative of an underlying problem that has to be treated.
- Other factors – Normal BMI (Obese women are at risk to have low fertility), Normal hormonal release and regulation, Ethnicity, and General Health.
There are lots of ways to assess the fertility of a woman, some of the commonly used methods are:
There are different ways to perform this test:
- Urine test
The woman does this at home, the stick is dipped inside the urine if there’s a surge of Luteinizing hormone (LH) it indicates ongoing ovulation, in a normal cycle of 28 days woman should start testing from the 11th day after the last menstrual periods if the cycle is longer than 28 days then one should speak with a doctor to know about the right time to test.
- Home Fertility Monitors:
Fertility monitors are reliable hand-held devices that are making it easier than ever to predict ovulation by measuring basal body temperature or hormone levels in urine, saliva, and vaginal fluids.
- Progesterone levels:
On Day 21 of the regular menstrual cycle of 28 days progesterone levels are assessed, and ideal levels of 10ng/ml indicate that ovulation has occurred.
- Saliva Test:
When the saliva of a woman with high estrogen levels during ovulation is left on a slide to dry it changes from random clumps of blobs and spots to a fern-shaped pattern, this is known as saliva ferning.
Ovarian Reserve Test
It is done to evaluate the number of eggs remaining in the ovaries, it can be done via:
- LH and FSH levels – A blood test is done on days 2-3 of menses to predict the ovarian reserve, rise in the baseline levels of follicles stimulating hormone indicates that the ovary is depleting of follicles.
- Antral follicle count: It is an Ultrasound Scan done to evaluate the remaining eggs and their quality, the higher the count higher the chance for a woman to get pregnant.
- Anti-Mullerian hormone test: This hormone is produced by the small follicles in ovaries and it is done to assess the egg count of a woman.
- Inhibin B: Decreased levels of Inhibin B is associated with high levels of FSH and decreased oocyte quality and fertility.
Tubal Patency and Uterine Abnormalities
- Transvaginal or Abdominal Ultrasound – To rule out Uterine abnormalities (eg Bicornuate uterus) or mass (eg fibroid).
- Saline Infusion Sonography – To check tubal patency.
- Hysterosalpingography (HSG) – X-Ray and dye test to check tubal patency.
- Laparoscopy and dye test
So by getting these tests done, as asked by your Doctor, one can get a full assessment of her fertility and an answer to ‘How to know if you are fertile?’
What are signs of potential lower fertility in women?
When planning to conceive so many queries comes up in the mind of a woman and one of the most common is ‘ How do I know if I am fertile enough to get pregnant? ‘ so here we have sorted for you a few signs that might decrease fertility in a woman:
- Age above 35 years.
- Failure to conceive after 1 year of regular unprotected intercourse with a healthy male partner.
- Woman with PCOs.
- Females have enlarged fibroids inside the uterine cavity.
- History of miscarriages.
- Uterine abnormalities and defects.
- A woman diagnosed with STI, PID, or Tuberculosis.
- Any other comorbidity affecting reproductive health.
Although a woman’s most fertile days are typical during ovulation, there are several signs of high fertility in a woman that can be present in the days leading up to it. If you are trying to conceive, pay attention to your body for these potential signals that suggest peak fertility. And remember, if you have any questions or concerns about your reproductive health, don’t hesitate to reach out to a doctor or other medical professional.
What Are Good Supplements to Support High Fertility in a woman?
Your reproductive health is directly related to the well-being of the rest of your body, some supplements can help you to get the required nutrition for your body and support fertility, these are regularly prescribed by Doctors to women willing to get pregnant or who have just conceived ( if you’re diagnosed with subfertility than your treatment will be planned accordingly ).
- Acetyl L-carnitine
- B vitamins (other than folic acid)
- Coenzyme Q10
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin D
What are the Signs of Ovulation?
Signs of ovulation are the signs your body wants to get pregnant, women experience variable signs some of which are:
Mid pelvic pain or lower abdominal pain, discomfort, cramps, bloating, cervical mucous changes, vaginal discharge, Breast tenderness and nipple soreness, libido changes, headache, nausea, and a small rise in body temperature.
When are you most Fertile?
The fertile window comprises seven days of your menstrual cycle, five days just before ovulation, along with a day of ovulation, and a day after it. It is when your body shows fertility signs and the chances of conception are high.
When does Ovulation occur?
In an average cycle of 28 days, ovulation occurs 14 days before your next menstrual period. Rest, it varies with the duration of your cycle.
When are you more likely to conceive?
You’re more likely to get pregnant if you have sex five days before ovulation, on the day of ovulation, or a day after ovulation. By monitoring your basal body temperature you can know the best time for yourself to have sex with your partner if you’re willing to conceive.
What is an ovulation calculator and how does it help you get pregnant?
The ovulation calculator helps you find out your most fertile days by just entering your date on the day first of your last menstrual period, it is easily available online and easy to use so you won’t miss your chance of getting pregnant if you’re planning to conceive.
What if I have irregular periods?
If you’re experiencing an irregular period it can be a sign of an underlying problem or hormonal imbalance so better to get it checked by your gynecologist and get the treatment without delay.